Parliamentary history in the Pyrenees

71st ICHRPI conference, Andorra, July 2019

By Martin O’Donoghue

2019 marks the 600th anniversary of the convocation of the Consell de la Terra, the first parliamentary assembly in Andorra – a picturesque country of 78,000 inhabitants nestled in the Pyrenees mountain range straddling Spain and France. A co-principality which boasts both the Bishop of Urgell and the President of France as its two princes, it has a rich parliamentary history with the Consell de la Terra first given privilege in 1419.

It was thus fitting that the International Commission for the History of Representative Parliaments and Institutions came to this idyllic location for its 71st conference. Founded in 1936, the Commission is dedicated to the dissemination and publication of research on the history of representative and parliamentary institutions. As a global scholarly body, its conferences feature papers delivered in English, French, and German or in the language of the country where the conference is held.

This year’s conference was hosted by the Consell General, Andorra’s parliament, and discussions reflected key themes including the evolution of representative assemblies to democratic parliaments, parliaments of small states/microstates, forms of representation, and the internal organization of representative assemblies. Over three days, the conference featured papers from eighteen countries in Europe, Asia, and North America with a special reception hosted by the parliament and a cultural tour of sites of historical and architectural interest. Happily, in an academic environment of often ever-increasing fees, the conference was free to attend, and the schedule was excellently organised with the reception offered by the parliament allowing delegates the chance to visit the old parliament building and meet some current Andorran politicians.

The Commission’s events are a great opportunity to highlight the opportunities offered by international conferences where particular themes and phenomena explored in a local or national context can be compared and interpreted in the context of emerging research on parliaments and assemblies. The Andorran setting provided an ideal environment for discussion of micro-states and smaller states and the evolution of their legislatures. The numerous anniversaries marked in 2019 (not least those of states emerging after the First World War) provided intriguing departure points for detailed analyses of a range of case studies. Other noteworthy themes emerged from discussions such as the influence of certain constitutional or parliamentary models on neighbouring states and the comparison of the behaviour of chambers, clerks, and parliamentarians in different geographical and temporal contexts.

Both the content of papers themselves and the opportunities to meet and discuss research with a diverse range of scholars helps to reflect not only the importance of themes in parliamentary history like localism and the use of parliamentary questions but also more practical issues such as how funding proposals and projects based around studies of parliamentary history can be constructed. From my perspective, it was an opportunity to reflect on the centenary of the Dáil – the lower house of the Irish parliament which first met a century ago this year. My paper dwelt on the role of Dáil representatives who had previously served as Irish nationalist MPs at the London parliament in Westminster. The post-war election in December 1918 saw a changing of the political guard in Ireland as Sinn Féin defeated the Irish Parliamentary Party, meaning that those who served in both the British parliament pre-1918 and the native parliament afterwards were rare, but were often distinctive parliamentarians and served as reminders of the older political tradition in the new state. This paper drew on my forthcoming book, The Legacy of the Irish Parliamentary Party in Independent Ireland, 1922-1949 and it was a pleasure to present this work on a panel with fascinating papers on the use of parliamentary motions in the early years of Finnish independence and the construction of the post-war Italian constitution.

The generous timetabling of the session also allowed ample time for enjoying the wonderful town of Andorra la Vella and the breath-taking scenery of the surrounding areas. In addition to meeting members of parliament and enjoying the Consell General’s hospitality, other delegates even managed to fit in work at the state’s national archives! The Commission offers generous scholarships for early career scholars to attend its conferences though its Helen Maud Cam bursary each year. As can be seen from the ICHRPI’s website, conferences are hosted by impressive institutions in beautiful locations and as a member of the International Committee of Historical Sciences (CIHS), the Commission’s next congress will meet in Poznan, Poland in 2020.


Martin O’Donoghue is a lecturer in Irish and British History at Northumbria University and a member of the ICHRPI. His upcoming book is The Legacy of the Irish Parliamentary Party in Independent Ireland, 1922-1949 and will be published by Liverpool University Press later this year. For more information or to contact him see his contact details at Northumbria or on twitter: @ODonoghueMartin

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Adventures and Conferences

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By Marcel Haas

If you ever wondered whether immersing yourself fully into academia is a good idea, this week’s post has some ideas that might convince you to do so. Let me begin by saying that I truly enjoy going to conferences. Think about the fact that the university allows you to go on a short holiday where you meet some interesting people, make great new friends (who can also be quite influential and helpful), and all you have to do is give a short presentation and listen to why people think that you should use different sources. Conferences become even more enticing when they are held in a different country than the one in which you are currently working. In my case, that foreign country was Mexico, and that conference the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Ethnohistory (of which I am a shiny new member). 

Right away, I felt the rush of oncoming adventure when my plane touched down on the runway of Oaxaca’s Xococotn Airport and I emerged into October’s tropical heat. The conference took place in a comfortable hotel a little outside the city center, which commanded a magnificent view of the valley. Oaxaca is an incredibly beautiful place that boasts architecture from the Spanish colonial era as well as modern art, markets, and restaurants that overlook the tremendous sight of ancient Monte Alban. The latter truly feels like the city of the gods it was meant to resemble. Built entirely upon the peak of the central mountain of the valley (which had been razed to create a massive plateau), it surely takes its place besides Mexico’s other archaeological highlights such as Teotihuacan and Palenque.

As a center of art, culture, and history, Oaxaca was the ideal place for a very special conference. The Society for Ethnohistory is generally focused on examining the history of Indigenous peoples of the Americas, but more specifically highlights the agency and achievements of Indigenous people in interaction with the colonizing Europeans (the latter part is mostly due to the source availability of course). In South Mexico, this focus allowed conference attendees to experience the region’s history while presenting their new research on exactly that. Coupled with the brilliant organization by the colleagues of UNAM and Oaxaca, the proximity to world-renowned archaeological sites (apart from Monte Alban, also the fascinating former Zapotec city Mitla is only a short cab ride away) made the conference week very special.

Besides its historic relevance and culinary excellence, it seemed to me that Oaxaca (and Mexico specifically) had also been chosen as a political statement in the face of increasing xenophobia in the United States. The choice reaffirmed the close connection of the Society with Mexico (especially considering that the “American” in its title does not simply refer to the US!), and the importance of Mesoamerica for the study of Indigenous peoples and the history of the continent. Importantly, a fiery speech by the outgoing president of the Society, Matthew Restall, emphasized the need for empathy for the suffering of other people, especially Indigenous women who have been the target of violence for centuries. 

After five days of talks, presentations, round tables, receptions, and late-night chats, the conference came to an end. Exhausted, amazed, laden with ideas and photographs, I finally made my way back to Michigan. The week in Oaxaca had been special, but also a perfect example of the experience we as graduate students, early career researchers, and even established scholars can have at one of the many conferences throughout the academic year. Alright, why aren’t you applying yet?

 Oaxaca, 2018

What Makes the IGHSC a Great Conference

Presenters and people attending the panel titled "When Faiths Collide: Religion and Power in South and East Asia." Photo Credit: Julianne Haefner.

Presenters and people attending the panel titled "When Faiths Collide: Religion and Power in South and East Asia." Photo Credit: Julianne Haefner.

By Jason Romisher, Simon Fraser University.

I had the pleasure of attending the 2018 International Graduate Historical Studies Conference (IGHSC) at Central Michigan University.  I returned to Central Michigan after attending the 2017 Conference because of how well organized it was, the quality of the presentations, an amazing keynote speaker, and an expert discussant who provided me with invaluable feedback that significantly improved the historiography section of my thesis.  Once again, the 2018 conference did not disappoint.  Julianne Haefner was the conference organizer for the last two years, and she did a great job of ensuring that the conference is organized and that everyone has their needs and concerns addressed.  Last year she picked me up from the airport and this year the conference provided shuttle service from the hotel to the conference and to social events off campus.  This year’s conference took place over two days and included eleven total panels. 

The keynote speaker was Dr. Alan Taylor, the Thomas Jefferson Chair in American History at the University of Virginia.  Dr. Taylor had an excellent lecture that challenged a lot of my understandings of the War of 1812.  As a Canadian, I very much appreciated learning about a war that is a major part of Canadian historiography.  Dr. Taylor’s presentation asked us to reconsider the War of 1812 as a larger series of conflicts that he described as the War of the 1810s.  He argued that the central goal of the United States at this time was not the invasion and conquest of the British colonies of Canada but rather, the neutralization and elimination of the alliances between the British, Spanish, and Native Americans.  I very much enjoyed chatting with Dr. Taylor at the evening social.  It was an incredible honor to have a light-hearted conversation with a historian with not one but two Pulitzer Prizes.

The quality of the conference panels and the way they were thematically organized was quite strong.  Furthermore, Central Michigan has a rich diversity of scholars because of their efforts to internationalize the program.  CMU has international students from among other places - Italy, Germany, and Scotland.  Some of the students have moved from an MA program at a university in Europe to full-time study at CMU at the PhD level.  Scholars attending the conference also came from Great Britain, the Czech Republic, France, and Canada.  From the United States, there were presenters from various schools in Michigan as well as from Texas, Illinois, Indiana, Alabama, Washington D.C., California, New York, and West Virginia.  The presentations included several fascinating examples of new and emerging research covering topics such as 20th century international peace activism, a framework for understanding Armenian Genocide denial, the trial and execution of a twenty-two year old female German concentration camp guard, painted illustrations in medieval Islamic cartography, war and slavery in comics, Scottish razor gangs, and the imprisonment of homosexuals at Alcatraz. I have been to several conferences where there is a chair and no discussant.  CMU ensures that each panel has an expert in the field who reads each paper and provides detailed feedback. Many of the discussants also come from outside CMU because of the many universities and colleges in Michigan.   I was very happy to have a gender historian not only give me feedback on my paper but detailed edits.      

The international nature of the conference really allows for scholars to connect from different universities, nations, and cultures.  I very much appreciated the conversations and social atmosphere of the conference.  I enjoyed hearing stories about the revival of squirrels using CPR, what it is like to walk the streets of Jerusalem, the location of a Santa Claus training academy in nearby Midland, Michigan, and the thrill and connection to culture and community when hiking a Scottish mountain and playing bagpipes from the summit.  I also enjoyed finding hiking enthusiasts and sharing with them the glory of Canada’s National Parks. 

The conference included some excellent perks and amenities.  For example, it gives out an array of awards including: the President’s Award for best paper, Best CMU Graduate Paper, Best Paper by a Non-CMU Student, Best Paper in Transnational History, Best Undergraduate Paper, and the Women and Gender Studies Program Award.  The conference also included a catered dinner on the first night, an open bar social with hors d'oeuvres, and a catered lunch on the second day with different meal and dessert options.  The university itself is modern with new buildings and is a state of the art facility.

I have been to nine conferences the last two years at seven universities, and the IGHSC has been the best experience of all of them for the reasons mentioned above.  I am already looking forward to next year’s conference!


Jason Romisher recently completed an MA in History at Simon Fraser University.  He also holds an Honours Bachelor of Arts Degree from Queen’s University (Kingston, ON) and a Bachelor of Education Degree from Lakehead University. Jason spent the summer of 2016 doing extensive historical research in the New Jersey area as part of his MA thesis entitled: “Youth Activism and the Black Freedom Struggle in Lawnside, New Jersey.” He is currently a secondary school teacher in Ontario with sixteen years of teaching experience.  Jason’s non-academic interests include: birding, photography, backcountry hiking, and athletics.